This paper was presented at
Psychology: The Indian Contribution
National Conference on
Indian Psychology, Yoga and Consciousness
organised by the Indian Council of Philosophical Research
at the Sri Aurobindo International Centre of Education
Pondicherry, India, 10-13 December 2004

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Pedagogical techniques in the ancient Indian scriptures

Panch Ramalingam — Pondicherry University, Pondicherry.

The specialty of the ancient Indian education system rests upon the uniqueness of the traditional teaching and learning process based on the guru kula system. The ancient Indian education system had a rich treasure of teaching methods and approaches. This paper examines the pedagogical techniques exercised in the ancient Indian traditions. The major sources of information are ancient Indian scriptures and writings of pedagogical approaches in the Upanishads. The major objectives include exploring the pedagogical techniques in ancient scriptures, exposition of pedagogical approaches in the Upanishads, exposition of various types practised in the ancient society for spiritual development, and understanding the inner spirit of the problems and proper application of pedagogical techniques for the present education system. An attempt is also made to explain the traditional pedagogical techniques with regard to teacher-student relationship. Finally, the issue of how best the pedagogical techniques can be used in the modern educational system to create learner-centred instead of teacher-centred education, is taken up.